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Rape by gender

Page history last edited by PBworks 14 years, 11 months ago

Rape by gender


Rape of females by males - see also violence against women

The rape of females by males (male-female) is the best known and most reported form of rape in the United States. According to RAINN and The National College Women Sexual Victimization Study, between one in four and one in six college aged women will be raped during her lifetime. 17.7 million women have been victims of rape and attempted rape in the United States. RAINN also states that young females are four times more likely than any other group to be the victims of sexual assault. More than 32,000 pregnancies result from male-female rape every year (Holmes et al. 1996). Female victims of male rape often experience multiple victimization which means they are assaulted more than once in their lives due to PTSD vulnerability. By all reasonable reports male-female rape exacts a staggering toll on women in America. However, as the best known form of rape in the United States, the rape of females by males is also sometimes mistaken as the only form of rape. All forms of rape (including male on male, female-male, and female-female) are valid and, according to many, deserve investigation by researchers, reporting by crime reporters and treatment by therapists.


One common false assumption about the rape of females is that a woman who lubricates, experiences arousal or even orgasms is consenting to her rape. A woman's physiological responses to sexual contact are involuntary and in no way imply consent. A woman can become aroused, lubricate, and even orgasm against her will during a rape.


Rape of males by males


It is less well-known that many men and boys have been raped by other males. Male on male rape is common in Incest, incestuous rape, and other situations, (such as prison or other similar settings) where men and boys are dependent on elder males and/or are unable to escape stronger males. Since the United States Uniform Crime Report statistics are considered unreliable (see discussion(s) above) regarding rape in general, regarding the gender the victims (in some states rape of males is considered impossible by the law), and regarding the gender of the victimizer, no reliable statistics on male-male rape can be taken from these crime statistics, despite their official nature. What can be estimated from the Uniform Crime Report rape statistics is that rape of males, by both genders, represents a minimum of about 10% of all rapes. However, since there is no known uniform gender-neutral data on all forms of rape it impossible to distinguish how many males were raped by males versus those males raped by females. When a male is raped (by a male or female) the involuntary physiological response of erection or orgasm cannot be taken to imply that the act was welcomed by the victim. A capable assailant, male or female, can induce these involuntary physical responses in the majority of males with force and/or with deception. Male-on-male rape does not imply homosexuality. This is a common misperception. People often view the male aggressor as a homosexual, and may think of the recipient as having homosexual tendencies too, especially if he shows signs of sexual stimulation during the experience. Research indicates that the most common form of male-male rape is group rape by other males who rape males who are considered less than 'real' men or latent homosexuals; therefore it is a mistake to perceive the rapists as homosexuals in these cases too.


Rape of males by females

Women also can commit an act of rape with force or deception to make a man (or adolescent) engage in a non-consensual penetrative sexual act. According to Court TV's Crime Library, women commit about 10% of all sexual offenses and their abuse often involves their own child or children which is [incest]. Several widely publicized cases of female-male statutory rape in the United States involved school teachers raping their teenage male students. A recent example of this is that of [Debra Lafave] of Greco Middle School and her teenaged student. The controversial case questioned the mindset that teenagers are too innocent to give consent to sex.


Rape of males by females is widely, but incorrectly, considered impossible because male erectile response is seen as voluntary, when, in fact, it is involuntary.Male Rape Therefore, male victims of rape by females often face social, political, and legal double-standards male survivor. Female rapists are usually seen as much less culpable than male rapists by the courts. In addition, male victims of female rape often endure a double-bind because men are considered to always want sex with a woman which means that female-on-male rape can be seen, by others, as consensual when in fact the female sexual predator usually uses covert psychological or emotional coercion to commit the crime. In addition, since rape by females is much less well known than male-female rape, male victims of female rapists often find little support from rape crisis centers. Finally, since the incidence of female-on-male rape is on record at much higher rates (31% compared to 10%) in Canada, it is likely being substantially under-reported in the US.


In many countries, male rape is legally classified under a different law or name. However, the nature of the incident, and its consequences, are similar. It is said that male rape is taken less seriously as a result of the stereotypical views held about males in many societies, including modern Western society. Men's rights lobbyists are pushing for tougher male rape laws, and have gained some success, but many still feel that more work is needed to be done.


Rape of females by females

Female-female rape is just beginning to be researched by psychologists. What constitutes female-female rape is defined on a state by state basis in the United States (see Law above). Female-female rape can occur against heterosexual females, by mothers against their daughter(s) (incest) or in incestuous rapes by other responsible female elders, against lesbians alone and against lesbians by their lesbian lovers. As in male-male rape, the victim of female-female rape is not necessarily homosexual simply because she is the target of assault by a woman. The attacker is not necessarily homosexual either.


As in male-male prison rape, a number of authors have noted that women rape other women in prison.


Lesbian sexual assault is often a peripheralized subject in today's society. Lori Girshick explores the taboo subject in her book Woman-to-Woman Sexual Violence: Does she call it rape. The Network/La Red is a non-profit organization dedicated to the issue of lesbian domestic violence.


Another taboo, heretofore concealed and especially terrible type of female-female rape is the rape of daughters by mothers or other female caregivers (see parental incest). Bobbie Rosencrans, a survivor of mother-daughter incest and co-author of The Last Secret: Daughters Sexually Abused by Mothers (1997), a systematic study of 93 women and 9 men sexually abused by their mothers was flooded with responses from female subjects when she began her study. Other researchers in the counseling field have noted similar responses from victims along with persistent attempts to stifle, or to hold back research into mother-daughter [incest] and sexual abuse.


It is estimated in the United States that 3-10% of all serious sexual offenses are female-female in nature. Researchers in the counseling professions believe that female-on-female sexual offenses are significantly under-reported. There is also evidence to suggest that sexual offenses committed by females against females are actively concealed and/or denied by both the offenders themselves and the wider population.


However, due to the lack of substantial evidence provided in these cases, female on female rape is often misconstrued as statutory assault in most states. These states include California, New York, Florida and South Dakota.



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