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[[Image:Rape_of_the_Sabine_Women.jpgthumb200px|[The Rape of the Sabine Women], a 1582 sculpture by [Giambologna].]]



(See below for definitions of rape)


'Rape' is a [crime] where the victim is forced into [sexual activity], in particular [sexual penetration], against his or her will through use of physical force, threat of injury, or other duress. It is also considered rape if the victim is unable to say "no" to intercourse, due to the effects of drugs or alcohol. The word originates from the [Latin] verb rapere: to seize or take by force. The Latin term for the act of rape itself is raptus.


Originally, the word rape was akin to rapine, [rapture], [raptor], and rapacious, and referred to the more general violations, such as [looting], destruction, and capture of citizens that are inflicted upon a town or country during [war], eg. the [Rape of Nanking]. Today, some dictionaries still define rape to include any serious and destructive assault] against a person or community. This article, however, focuses on [sexual assault].



== Definitions of rape ==

'Rape' is, in most jurisdictions, a crime defined as sexual intercourse or penetration without valid consent by both parties. In many jurisdictions, the penetration of the [anus] or the vagina can be considered rape (although most jurisdictions require the penetration of the vagina by a penis), and many jurisdictions, the penetration of either the vagina or the anus need not be by a penis, but can be by other objects such as a finger or a [dildo]. Some jurisdictions expand the definition of rape further to include other sexual acts without valid consent, including oral copulation] and [masturbation]. (Therefore, in most jurisdictions, "rape" can only be perpetrated by a male against a female, or a female against a male, while in other jurisdictions male-male and female-female sexual relations can also constitute rape.) The lack of valid consent does not necessarily mean that the victim explicitly refused to give consent; generally, where consent was obtained by physical force, threat of injury, or other duress, or where consent was given by a person whose age was below the [age of consent], a person who was intoxicated by drugs or alcohol, or a person who was mentally impaired by illness or [developmental disability], the consent is considered invalid. (When the sexual activity involved a person whose age was below the age of consent, the crime defined is often known as "statutory rape," although a number of jurisdictions use terms such as "unlawful sexual intercourse" to avoid the forcible connotation of the word "rape.")


===Non-sexual usage of term===

English rape was in use since the [14th century] in the general sense of "seize prey, take by force," from raper, an [Old French] legal term for "to seize", in turn from [Latin] rapere "seize, carry off by force, abduct". The Latin term was also used for sexual violation, but only very rarely. The legendary event known as the "Rape of the Sabine Women]", while ultimately motivated sexually, did not entail sexual violation of the Sabine women on the spot, who were rather abducted, and then implored by the Romans to marry them (as opposed to striking a deal with their fathers or brothers first, as would have been required by law).


Though the sexual connotation is today dominant, the word "rape" can be used in non-sexual context in literary English. In "the rape of the [Silmarils]" in [[J. R. R. Tolkien]]'s "[The Silmarillion]", the word "rape" is used with its old meaning of "seizing and taking away".

In [Alexander Pope]'s [The Rape of the Lock], the word "rape" is used hyperbolically], exaggerating a trivial violation against a person. Compare also the adjective rapacious which retains the generic meaning.


Sometimes, the word rape is used colloquially to dysphemistically] describe forms of non-sexual unwelcome conduct ("My team got raped on the field yesterday"), or metaphorically as in "the rape of the Earth" referring to environmental destruction], possibly implying a female gender of the Earth ([Gaia]). Other than in literary usage discussed above, this use of the term is unrelated to the original sense of "abduction" or "carrying off" and implies a comparison with sexual violation. In "The [Rape of Nanking]" actual mass rape and mass murder is summarized by naming the city as the object of the rape.



The concept of rape, both as an abduction] and in the [sexual] sense, makes its first appearance in early religious] texts. In [Greek mythology], for example, the rape of women, as exemplified by the rape of Europa], and male rape, found in the myth of [Laius] and Chrysippus], were mentioned. Different values were ascribed to the two actions. The rape of Europa] by [Zeus] is represented as an abduction followed by consensual lovemaking, similar perhaps to the rape of Ganymede] by Zeus, and went unpunished.

The rape of Chrysippus by Laius, however, is represented in darker terms, and was known in antiquity] as "the crime of Laius", a term which came to be applied to all male rape. It was seen as an example of [hubris] in the original sense of the word, i.e. [violent] [outrage], and its punishment was so severe that it destroyed not only Laius himself, but also his son, [Oedipus].


In antiquity and until the late [Middle Ages], rape was seen in most [culture]s less as a crime against a particular girl or woman than against the male figure she "belonged" to. Thus, the penalty for rape was often a fine, payable to the father or the husband whose "goods" were "damaged". That position was later replaced in many cultures by the view that the woman, as well as her lord, should share the fine equally.


In some laws the woman might be married to the rapist instead of his receiving the legal penalty. This was especially prevalent in laws where the crime of rape did not include, as a necessary part, that it be against the woman's will, thus dividing the crime in the current meaning of rape, and a means for a man and woman to force their families to permit marriage.


In pagan [Rome], it was expected that an honorable woman, being raped, would like [Lucretia] remove the stain on her honor by committing suicide. The failure of Christian women, having been raped in the [sack of Rome], to kill themselves was commented on by pagans with shock and horror; St. Augustine] dedicated an entire book of [The City of God] to defending these women's honor and chastity. Early Christianity also maintained, as paganism did not, that slave women were entitled to chastity, and that therefore a slave woman could be raped, and honored as [martyr]s slave women who resisted their masters.


In Roman law, the crime of rape was not defined by the lack of consent of the woman, but by her removal from her family; the change was described by [William Blackstone] in his [Commentaries on the Laws of England]:

The civil law of Rome punishes the crime of ravishment with death and confiscation of goods: under which it includes both the offence of forcible abduction, or taking away a woman from her friends, of which we last spoke; and also the present offence of forcibly dishonoring them; either of which, without the other, is in that law, sufficient to constitute a capital crime. Also the stealing away a woman from her parents or guardians, and debauching her, is equally penal by the emperor's edict, whether she consent or is forced: “five volentibus, five nolentibus mulieribus, tale facinus fuerit perpetratum.” And this, in order to take away from women every opportunity of offending in this way; whom the Roman laws suppose never to go astray, without the seduction and arts of the other sex: and therefore, by restraining and making so highly penal the solicitations of the men, they meant to secure effectually the honor of the women...


But our English law does not entertain quite such sublime ideas of the honor of either sex, as to lay the blame of a mutual fault upon one of the transgressors only: and therefore makes it a necessary ingredient in the crime of rape, that it must be against the woman's will.


Rape, in the course of warfare], also dates back to antiquity, ancient enough to have been mentioned in the [Bible].


The Greek], Persian] and Roman] troops would routinely rape women and boys in the conquered towns.


Rape, as an [adjunct] to warfare, was prohibited by the [military] codices] of Richard II] and Henry V] ([1385] and [1419] respectively). These laws formed the basis for convicting and executing rapists during the [Hundred Years' War] ([1337]-[1453]).


Since the 1970's many changes have occurred in the perception of sexual assault due in large part to the feminist movement and its public characterization of rape as a crime of power and control rather than purely of sex. In some countries the women's liberation movement of the 1970's created the first rape crisis centers. This movement was led by the National Organization for Women (NOW) ([http://www.now.org/]). One of the first two rape crisis centers, the [[Washington, D.C.|D.C.]] Rape Crisis Center ([http://www.dcrcc.org]), opened in 1972. It was created to promote sensitivity and understanding of rape and its effects on the victim.


Marital rape first became a crime in the [United States] in the state of [South Dakota] in 1975. Marital rape is not a crime at common law. In the 1980s, date or acquaintance rape first gained acknowledgment. On [July 5], [1993], marital rape became a crime in all 50 states, under at least one section of the sexual offense codes. An important part of the history of rape is the foundation of RAINN in 1994 by Tori Amos and Scott Berkowitz. RAINN is central to the modern history of the rape crisis movement as it founded the national sexual assault hotline and provides statistics and information to the media.


On [September 2], [1998] the [United Nations] [International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda] made sexual violence a [war crime]. Current topics being debated are the peripheralized victims of rape — male rape victims of both male and female rapists, female-female rape and parental-rape [incest] victims, LGBT domestic violence and rape victims, marital rape victims and child sexual abuse victims. Other emerging issues are the concept of victim blame and its causes, male rape survivors, male-male rape, female sexual aggression, new theories of rape and gender, date rape drugs and their effects as well as the psychological effects of rape trauma syndrome.




===Common law===

In the [common law] of the [United Kingdom], [Australia] and the [United States], rape traditionally describes the act of a man who forces a woman to have [sexual intercourse] with him. Until the late [20th Century], a husband forcing sex on his wife was not considered "rape", since a woman (for certain purposes) was not considered a separate [legal person] with the right of refusal, or sometimes was deemed to have given advanced consent to a life-long sexual relationship through the wedding vows. However, most Western countries have now legislated] against this exception. They now include [spousal rape] ([vagina]l intercourse), and acts of sexual violence, such as forced [anal intercourse] which were traditionally barred under [sodomy law]s, in their definitions of "rape". The term "rape" is sometimes considered "loaded", and many [jurisdiction]s recognize broader categories of [sexual assault] or sexual battery] instead.


There is a clear [mens rea] element in the law regarding rape i.e. the accused must be aware that the victim is not consenting or might not be consenting. However, different jurisdictions vary in how they place the onus of proof with regards to belief of consent.


Under English law, until May 2005, a "genuine" belief that the victim was consenting, even if unreasonable, was sufficient. The law was changed so that belief of consent is now only a defense if the belief is both genuine and reasonable.


===U.S. law===

There is no national rape law in the [United States]. Each state has its own laws concerning sexual aggression. More than half the states use narrowly defined, traditional laws that focus on the institutional, gender-specific (male perpetrator/female victim), and sexual nature of the crime. The other states use liberalized laws that place greater emphasis on the individual, gender-neutral, and violent nature of sexual coercion. However, current laws in approximately 12 states still have not acknowledged female-perpetrated sexual coercion as a potential variation of sexual aggression. Thus there is no single, universal, gender-neutral legal classification about what constitutes rape in the United States in [2006].


===English law===

Under the [Sexual Offences Act 2003], which came into force on [May 1], [2004], rape in England and Wales was redefined from non-consensual vaginal or anal intercourse, and is now defined as non-consensual penis penetration of the vagina, anus or mouth of another person. The changes also made rape punishable with a maximum sentence of life imprisonment. They also altered the requirements of the defence of mistaken belief of consent so that one's belief must be now both genuine and reasonable (see above under common law)


Although a woman who forces a man to have sex cannot be prosecuted for rape under English law, if she helps a man commit a rape she can be prosecuted for the crime. A woman can also be prosecuted for causing a man to engage in sexual activity without his consent, a crime which also carries a maximum life sentence if it involves penetration of the mouth, anus or vagina. The statute introduces a new sexual crime, "assault by penetration", with the same punishment as rape. It is committed when someone sexually penetrates the anus or vagina with a part of his or her body, or with an object, without that person's consent.


===United States: rape reporting===

According to USA Today reporter Kevin Johnson, "no other major category of crime - not murder, assault or robbery - has generated a more serious challenge of the credibility of national crime statistics" as has the crime of rape. He says:

"There are good reasons to be cautious in drawing conclusions from reports on rape. The two most accepted studies available - the FBI's annual Uniform Crime Report and the Justice Department's annual National Crime Victimization Survey - each have widely acknowledged weaknesses."
The FBI's report fails to report rapes with male victims, both of adults and children, fails to report non-forcible rapes of either gender by either gender, and reflects only the number of rapes reported to police. The Justice Department's survey solicits information from people 12 and older, excluding the youngest victims of rape (and [incest]). However, by using a random national telephone survey of households, the National Crime Victimization Survey could pick up rapes unreported to the police. In addition, since both official reports collect rape data from states with widely divergent standards and definitions on what constitutes rape, uniform reporting is impossible.


The latest official attempt to improve the tracking of rape, the National Violence Against Women survey was first published in 1998 by the National Institute of Justice and the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Its authors have acknowledged that they used different methodologies with "relatively high" margins of error. The [2000] report notes that "because annual rape victimization estimates (nationwide) are based on responses from only 24 women and 8 men (emphasis added) who reported being raped, they should be viewed with caution." The report goes on to note that it fails to report rapes perpetrated against children and adolescents, was well as those who were homeless, or living in institutions, group facilities, or in households without telephones.


In addition, since there is no national standard, much less a uniform national standard for defining and reporting male-male and female-perpetrated rapes, since more than half the states use traditional gender-specific (limited to male perpetration against females) rape law, and since rape laws in approximately 12 states do not even acknowledge the possibility, much less the occurrence, of female-perpetrated rape, the occurrences of these types of rape are likely to be significantly underreported as compared to the well-known but biased reports of rapes perpetrated by men against women.


===United States: rape statistics===

Rape crisis statistics can be found from the FBI and the Bureau of Justice as well as the CDC and RAINN (who uses those resources as a source).


==Types of rape==

===Rape of children by parents, elder relatives, and other responsible elders===

This form of rape is [incest] when committed by the teen's parents or close relatives such as grandparents, aunts and uncles. It is considered incestuous in nature but not in form when committed by other elders, such as priests, nuns or other religious authorities, school teachers, or therapists, to name a few, on whom the child is dependent. Psychologists estimate that 40 million adults, 15 million of those being men (Adams 1991), in the United States were sexually abused in childhood often by parents, close relatives and other elders — of both genders — on whom they were dependent.


Children, including but not limited to adolescents, raped by their parents and other close elders are often called 'secret survivors' by psychologists, as they often are unable or unwilling to tell anyone about these rapes due to implicit or explicit threats by the adult rapist, fear of abandonment by the rapist, and/or overwhelming [shame]. Since the signs of these insidious rapes are usually invisible except to trained professionals these children often suffer ongoing offenses in silence until independence from the adult rapist is attained. By that time, the [statute of limitations] is often long-expired, the adult victim's repressed memories] are often considered inadmissible as evidence and the teen-rapist is able to escape justice. (It should be noted that repressed memories are a hotly debated topic in the psychological community, and many psychologists do not believe in their existence. For more information, see the "repressed memories" article.) In addition, rapists who rape their own children are considered less culpable, legally, than other rapists in most US states.


===Statutory rape===

{{main|Statutory rape}}


National and/or regional [governments], citing an interest in protecting "young people" (variously defined but sometimes synonymous with minor]s), treat any sexual contact with such a person as an offense (not always categorised as "rape"), even if he or she agrees to the sexual activity. The offense is often based on a presumption that people under a certain age do not have the capacity to give informed consent. The age at which individuals are considered competent to give consent is called the [age of consent]. This varies in different countries and regions, and in the US ranges from 12 to 21. Sex which violates age-of-consent law, but is neither violent nor physically coerced, is sometimes described as "[statutory rape]", a legally-recognized category in the United States.


===Acquaintance ("date") rape===

Main Article: [Date Rape]


The term, "acquaintance rape" (or "date rape") refers to rape or non-consensual sexual activity between people who are already acquainted, or who know each other socially — friends, acquaintances, people on a date, or even people in an existing [romantic relationship] — where it is alleged that consent for sexual activity was not given, or was given under [duress]. The vast majority of rapes are committed by people who already know the victim. [http://www.aaets.org/arts/art13.htm] Different countries have different rape laws. In many countries it is not possible to commit the crime of rape against one's own wife. If two people are regularly sexually intimate, in many countries it is not a crime for one partner to have sex with their sleeping or drunk partner even though that partner did not give express consent. In fact, rape laws vary greatly from country to country.


===Spousal Rape===


Main Article: [Spousal rape]


Also known as marital rape, wife rape, partner rape or intimate partner sexual assault (IPSA), is rape between a married or de facto couple.


It is often assumed that spousal rape is less traumatic that from a stranger. However, research reveals that victims of marital/partner rape suffer longer lasting trauma than victims of stranger rapeFinkelhor and Yllo (1985) and Bergen (1996), possibly because of a lack of social validation that prevents a victim from getting access to support; a problem that Domestic violence services combat.


===Gang rape===

Group rape (also known as "gang" or "pack" rape) occurs when a group of people participate in the rape of a single victim. 10% to 20% involve more than one attacker. It is far more damaging to the victim, and in some jurisdictions, is punished more severely than rape by a single person. The term "gang bang"] was a synonym for gang rape when public discussion of sexual activity in general was [taboo]; however in the advent of the porn industry and relaxed sexual tensions, it is now often used as a slang term for consensual [group sex]. The term "group rape" is now often preferred to "gang rape", as the word "gang" can have racial connotations when used against minority defendants.


According to sexual crime profiler [Roy Hazelwood], gang rape "involves three or more offenders and you always have a leader and a reluctant participant. Those are extremely violent, and what you find is that they're playing for each other's approval. It gets into a pack mentality and can be horrendous."


===Rape as means of warfare===

Armies have throughout the ages consisted overwhelmingly of males, and rapes have served a purpose. The rape is used as means of [psychological warfare] - humiliating the enemy soldiers and undermining their morale as giving them signal of being unable to protect what is valuable to them.


Rapes in war are often systematic and thorough, and military leaders may actually encourage the soldiers to ravage the enemy women. [Ilya Ehrenburg] indoctrinated the Soviet Army in World War Two to systematically rape the German and East European women to break their racial self-esteem and will to fight and as just retaliation for the German atrocities. Likewise, systematic rapes were also means of war in the [Yugoslavia]n Civil War, where women of opposite nationality were hoarded in camps, and raped on daily basis until [pregnancy] was result.


German women raped by Soviet soldiers in WWII were invariably denied [abortion] to further humiliate them as to carry an unwanted child. As result, according the book "Berlin: The Downfall, 1945" by [Antony Beevor], some 90% of Berlin women in 1945 had venereal diseases as results of consequential rapes and 3.7% of all children born in Germany 1945-1946 had Russian fathers. The rapes of the German women by the Soviets were a [taboo] until 1992.


===Drug facilitated rape===

Main Article: [Date rape drug]s


Various drugs are used by rapists to render their victims unconscious, some also cause memory loss].


==Rape by gender==

===Rape of females by males===

The rape of females by males (male-female) is the best known and most reported form of rape in the [United States]. According to RAINN and The National College Women Sexual Victimization Study, between one in four and one in six college aged women will be raped during her lifetime. 17.7 million women have been victims of rape and attempted rape in the United States. RAINN also states that young females are four times more likely than any other group to be the victims of sexual assault. More than 32,000 pregnancies result from male-female rape every year (Holmes et al. 1996). Female victims of male rape often experience multiple victimization which means they are assaulted more than once in their lives due to PTSD] vulnerability. By all reasonable reports male-female rape exacts a staggering toll on women in America. However, as the best known form of rape in the [United States], the rape of females by males is also sometimes mistaken as the only form of rape. All forms of rape (including male on male, female-male, and female-female) are valid and, according to many, deserve investigation by researchers, reporting by crime reporters and treatment by therapists.


One common false assumption about the rape of females is that a woman who lubricates, experiences arousal or even orgasms is consenting to her rape. A woman's physiological responses to sexual contact are involuntary and in no way imply consent. A woman can become aroused, lubricate, and even orgasm against her will during a rape.


===Rape of males by males===

There is an effort to move the (already deleted) bulk of this section to [Male Rape Research] See [Male Rape Research] to discuss.


It is less well-known that many men and boys have been raped by other males. Male on male rape is common in [incest], incestuous rape, and other situations, (such as prison or other similar settings) where men and boys are dependent on elder males and/or are unable to escape stronger males. Since the [United States] Uniform Crime Report statistics are considered unreliable (see discussion(s) above) regarding rape in general, regarding the gender the victims (in some states rape of males is considered impossible by the law), and regarding the gender of the victimizer, no reliable statistics on male-male rape can be taken from these crime statistics, despite their official nature. What can be estimated from the Uniform Crime Report rape statistics is that rape of males, by both genders, represents a minimum of about 10% of all rapes. However, since there is no known uniform gender-neutral data on all forms of rape it impossible to distinguish how many males were raped by males versus those males raped by females. When a male is raped (by a male or female) the involuntary physiological] response of [erection] or [orgasm] cannot be taken to imply that the act was welcomed by the victim. A capable assailant, male or female, can induce these involuntary physical responses in the majority of males with force and/or with deception. Male-on-male rape does not imply [homosexuality]. This is a common misperception. People often view the male aggressor as a homosexual, and may think of the recipient as having homosexual tendencies too, especially if he shows signs of sexual stimulation during the experience. Research indicates that the most common form of male-male rape is group rape by other males who rape males who are considered less than 'real' men or latent homosexuals; therefore it is a mistake to perceive the rapists as homosexuals in these cases too.


===Rape of males by females===

Women also can commit an act of rape with force or deception to make a man (or adolescent) engage in a non-consensual penetrative sexual act. According to Court TV's Crime Library, women commit about 10% of all sexual offenses and their abuse often involves their own child or children which is [incest]. Several widely publicized cases of female-male statutory rape in the United States involved school teachers raping their teenage male students. A recent example of this is that of [Debra Lafave] of Greco Middle School and her teenaged student. The controversial case questioned the mindset that teenagers are too innocent to give consent to sex.


Rape of males by females is widely, but incorrectly, considered impossible because male erectile response is seen as voluntary, when, in fact, it is involuntary. {{cite web year=1997 url=http://www.ncvc.org/ncvc/main.aspx?dbName=DocumentViewer&DocumentID=32361#3 title=Male Rape publisher=The National Center for Victims of Crime | accessdate=2006-3-12}} Therefore, male victims of rape by females often face social, political, and legal double-standards [http://www.malesurvivor.org/News%20&%20Events/cosmo.html]. Female rapists are usually seen as much less culpable than male rapists by the courts. In addition, male victims of female rape often endure a double-bind because men are considered to always want sex with a woman which means that female-on-male rape can be seen, by others, as consensual when in fact the female sexual predator usually uses covert psychological or emotional coercion to commit the crime. In addition, since rape by females is much less well known than male-female rape, male victims of female rapists often find little support from rape crisis centers. Finally, since the incidence of female-on-male rape is on record at much higher rates (31% compared to 10%) in Canada, it is likely being substantially under-reported in the US.


In many countries, male rape is legally classified under a different law or name. However, the nature of the incident, and its consequences, are similar. It is said that male rape is taken less seriously as a result of the stereotypical] views held about males in many societies, including modern Western society. [Men's rights] [lobbyist]s are pushing for tougher male rape laws, and have gained some success, but many still feel that more work is needed to be done.


===Rape of females by females===

Female-female rape is just beginning to be researched by psychologists. What constitutes female-female rape is defined on a state by state basis in the United States (see Law above). Female-female rape can occur against heterosexual females, by mothers against their daughter(s) ([incest]) or in incestuous rapes by other responsible female elders, against lesbians alone and against lesbians by their lesbian lovers. As in male-male rape, the victim of female-female rape is not necessarily homosexual simply because she is the target of assault by a woman. The attacker is not necessarily homosexual either.


As in male-male prison rape, a number of authors have noted that women rape other women in prison.


Lesbian sexual assault is often a peripheralized subject in today's society. Lori Girshick explores the taboo subject in her book Woman-to-Woman Sexual Violence: Does she call it rape. The Network/La Red is a [non-profit organization] dedicated to the issue of lesbian domestic violence.


Another taboo, heretofore concealed and especially terrible type of female-female rape is the rape of daughters by mothers or other female caregivers (see parental [incest]). Bobbie Rosencrans, a survivor of mother-daughter incest and co-author of The Last Secret: Daughters Sexually Abused by Mothers (1997), a systematic study of 93 women and 9 men sexually abused by their mothers was flooded with responses from female subjects when she began her study. Other researchers in the counseling field have noted similar responses from victims along with persistent attempts to stifle, or to hold back research into mother-daughter [incest] and sexual abuse.


It is estimated in the United States that 3-10% of all serious sexual offenses are female-female in nature. Researchers in the counseling professions believe that female-on-female sexual offenses are significantly under-reported. There is also evidence to suggest that sexual offenses committed by females against females are actively concealed and/or denied by both the offenders themselves and the wider population.


However, due to the lack of substantial evidence provided in these cases, female on female rape is often misconstrued as actual rape when in fact it is only statutory assault in most states. These states include California, New York, Florida and South Dakota.


==Effects of rape and aftermath==


The most common long term effects of sexual assault and rape are the invisible ones. The immediate symptoms of rape trauma include having unpredictable and intense emotions. The victim may have an exaggerated startle response (jumpy), may have memories and intrusive thoughts about the assault, nightmares, difficulty sleeping and difficulty concentrating. The long term psychological effects of rape can include PTSD and rape trauma syndrome (RTS), OCD, DID, eating disturbances, Self Injury, Self blame, Panic attacks, Flashbacks, Body memories and Sleeping disorders. Unfortunately in many cases these effects can be life long if the victim does not get immediate support and care (Medline & RCIP). The way these symptoms are exhibited can be either expressive or subdued.

Rape is especially stigmitizing in societies with strong sexual customs and taboos. For example, a woman (and especially a [virgin]) who is raped may be deemed by society to be "damaged": she may suffer isolation, be prohibited to marry, be divorced if she was married, or even killed (known as secondary victimization). She may also suffer from self blame and feel "dirty", as if the crime was her fault. (Dearing et. al., 2005) A proportion of violent sexual assaults end with the death or serious injury of the victim. Other consequences can include [pregnancy] or [sexually transmitted disease]s. Because of the sexual nature of rape crimes, the most common effect is psychological.

In the past, survivors of rape and sexual assault were often diagnosed with [Rape Trauma Syndrome] (RTS), then considered to be a psychological disorder. RTS is no longer considered a [diagnosis], but rather a set of normal psychological and physiological reactions that a victim is likely to experience. The reactions are very similar to those that would be experienced by a survivor of any other traumatizing experience, and sometimes result in a diagnosis of [Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder]. These traumatic responses are often cited as one of the reasons why rape goes unreported. (NCPTSD)


The process to denounce and eventually convict an offender is often hindered by similar psychological effects. Victims frequently feel shame when describing what has happened (especially if the victim is male, or if a female victim must report the incident to a male law officer). Also, the intimate questions and [medical examination]s required for prosecution can make the victim uncomfortable. In societies that do not accord equal [civil rights] to women and men, this process is even more difficult for female victims. In societies where denial, sexual stereotyping and pervasive double standards exist, victims of male-male, female-male and female-female rape often suffer double victimization when they seek support from legal, medical, and psychological professionals.


Sexual assault of children can lead to the following: life-long depression, D.I.D. (formerly M.P.D.), cutting (self injury), other forms of self-mutilation, Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), Anti-Social Personality Disorder, Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSS), flashbacks, psychotic breaks with reality, alcoholism, substance abuse, promiscuity, celibacy, prostitution, an inability to form intimate relationships, self-hate, guilt, anger (which is often directed inwards as well as outwards), general mental deterioration including loss of IQ, emotional hypersensitivity, defensiveness, a lifelong inability to trust others, emotional numbness, an attraction to partners who are dominant and/or abusive. Children with PTSD have been found to have a reduced corpus callosum in the brain. Adult survivors often feel the need to always be in control. Adult survivors are at great risk of further victimization because disproportionately they find themselves falling in love with abusive partners (reinacting the abusive situation in order to overcome it). Adult survivors have a tendency to get involved in toxic, co-dependant relationships. Survivors of childhood rape disproportionately become abusers themselves. Adults previously assaulted as a child are twice as likely to be assaulted as an adult. A significant percentage of those convicted of child abuse were themselves victims of child abuse. (MNCASA) Learning about the health and psychological conditions effecting survivors of assault has been cited by researchers as a positive coping skill associated with faster healing. (Matsushita-Arao, 1997),(Ball, 1982)


===Medical emergency information===

{{Main articles|[Medical emergency] and [Sexual assault]}}


According to the [American College of Emergency Physicians] (ACEP) in the United States, rape is a [medical emergency] [http://www.acep.org/webportal/PatientsConsumers/HealthSubjectsByTopic/Violence/FeatureColumnRapeIsAnEmergencyWhyImmediateMedicalCareIsCritical.htm]. Medical and law enforcement professionals have strongly recommended that a victim calls for help] and reports it. A victim who seeks immediate medical attention, will not only allow prompt treatment for possibly life-threatening injuries and diseases, but will also preserve evidence. Many recommend that victims should not bathe or clean themselves before the examination, not only to prevent the loss of physical evidence, but also to not delay medical attention.


Physical injuries such as gynecologic], rectal] or [internal hemorrhage] may have resulted. Additionally, [emergency contraception] and preventative treatment against [sexually transmitted diseases] may be required, in particular [prophylactic] treatments to prevent HIV infection]. In many locations, [emergency medical technician]s, emergency room nurses and doctors are trained to help rape victims. Some [emergency room]s have rape kit]s which are used to collect evidence.


[AIDS] [prophylaxis] is possible within 48 hours, but is not always deemed appropriate, given:

  • the extremely small chance of transmission in many cases (0.1 - 0.3%, or between 1 in 333 and 1 in 1000);
  • the lack of certainty of any effective results (it reduces, rather than removes the risk); and
  • the often severe side effects of drugs required.

This would usually be a clinical decision based upon circumstances. [http://www.fhi.org/en/RH/Pubs/Network/v21_1/NW21-1HIVpostexpostretmnt.htm]



Some groups also operate [hotline]s to offer advice and psychological [first aid].


In the United States, one of the most prominent hotlines for rape victims is 1-800-656-HOPE; provided by the organisation [RAINN], it is confidential, 24-hour and [toll-free].


===Secondary victimization===

Secondary victimization is the re-traumatization of the sexual assault, abuse or rape victim.

It is an indirect result of assault which occurs through the responses of individuals and institutions to the victim. The types of secondary victimization include victim blaming, inappropriate behavior or language by medical personnel and by other organizations with access to the victim post assault. (Campbell et. al., 1999)


Secondary victimization is especially rampant in cases of drug facilitated, acquaintance and statutory rape.

===Victim blaming===

"[Victim blaming]" is holding the victim of a crime to be in whole or in part responsible for what has happened to them. In the context of rape, this concept refers to popular attitudes that certain victim behaviours (such as [flirting], or wearing sexually-provocative clothing) may encourage rape. In extreme cases, victims are said to have "asked for it", simply by not behaving demurely. In most Western countries, the defense of [provocation] is not accepted as a [mitigation] for rape, although in Sweden this happens almost routinely, and questions about the victim's clothing and behaviour is present in almost all rape trials. This has raised a lot of attention among the public and the press. Despite several changes in the legislation, little has changed, possible due to the impact of the courts' personal opinions and views that have a large effect on the verdict in the Swedish judicial system.


It has been proposed that one cause of victim-blaming is the "[just world hypothesis]". People who believe that the world has to be fair, may find it hard or impossible to accept a situation in which a person is unfairly and badly hurt for no cause or reason. This leads to a sense that, somehow, the victim must have surely done 'something' to deserve their fate. Another theory entails the need to protect one's own sense of invulnerability. This inspires people to believe that rape only happens to those who deserve or provoke the assault (Schneider et. al., 1994). This is a way of feeling safer. If the potential victim avoids the behaviours of the past victims then they themselves will remain safe and feel less vulnerable. A global survey of attitudes toward sexual violence by the [Global Forum for Health Research] [http://www.globalforumhealth.org/filesupld/vaw/attitudes.html] shows that victim-blaming concepts are at least partially accepted in many countries. In some countries, victim-blaming is more common, and women who have been raped are sometimes deemed to have behaved improperly. Often, these are countries where there is a significant social divide between the freedoms and status afforded to men and women.


A more mainstream view is that everybody has the theoretical right to feel safe at all times, but that the responsibility of preventing and minimising the risk of being in a dangerous situation is largely up to the individual. On this basis, the question is not whether the victim "deserved" to be raped, because nobody "deserves" to be the victim of crime, but rather whether the individual did choose to prevent or minimize the risk of being in a dangerous situation and/or the risk of harm in a dangerous situation.


Under cases of alleged date rape, however, the situation is different. Because the question at hand is whether or not the incident was consensual, or whether the alleged victim encouraged the accused or gave implied consent, becomes the critical consideration. As such, arguments about the victim's conduct are an accepted element of an [affirmative defense].


In the United States, rape is unique in that it is the only crime in which there are statutory protections designed in favor of the victim (known as "[rape shield law]s"). These were enacted in response to the common defense tactic of "putting the victim on trial". Typical rape shield laws prohibit cross-examination of the victim with respect to issues, such as his or her prior sexual history, or the manner in which he or she was dressed at the time of the rape. Most states and the federal rules, however, provide exceptions to the rape shield law where evidence of prior sexual history is used to provide an alternative explanation for physical evidence, where the defendant and the victim had a prior consensual sexual relationship, and where exclusion of evidence would violate the defendant's constitutional rights.


===Self blame===

There are two main types of self blame: undeserved blame based on character and undeserved blame based on actions. These are called Characterological and Behavioral.


Behavioral self blame refers to victims feeling that they should have done something differently (therefore they feel it is their fault).


Characterological self blame is when victims feel there is something inherently wrong with them (causing them to deserve to be assaulted). This type of blame is associated with more psychological negative effects.


Self blame is an avoidance coping skill which inhibits the healing process. The type of thought involved in self blame of victims is illogical thinking (known as counterfactual thinking) which can be remedied by a therapeutic technique known as cognitive restructuring. The main problem for victims is that feeling shame (stigma with the self) produces more psychological problems than feeling guilt (actions). It's easier to change an action than the self. Guilt promotes resolving action and shame promotes pulling away or wanting to be invisible. Withdrawing prevents the victim from seeking help and reporting. Feeling that you had control during the assault (past control or behavioral self blame) is associated with more psychological distress while believing you have more control now (present control or control over the recovery process) is associated with less distress, less withdrawal and more cognitive reprocessing. (Frazier et. al., 2005)


The leading researcher on shame, Tangney, lists five ways shame can be destructive:

lack of motivation to seek care; lack of empathy; cutting themselves off from other people; anger; and aggression. Tangney says shame has a special link to anger. "In day-to-day life, when people are shamed and angry they tend to be motivated to get back at a person and get revenge,".

In addition shame is connected to psychological problems- such as eating disorders, substance abuse, anxiety, depression, and other mental disorders as well as problematic moral behavior. In one study over several years shame-prone kids were prone to substance abuse, earlier sexual activity, less safe sexual activity, and involvement with the criminal justice system. (Tangney, 2002)


Counseling responses found helpful in reducing self blame are supportive responses, psychoeducational responses (learning about rape trauma syndrome) and those responses addressing the issue of blame. (Matsushita-Arao, 1997 ) A helpful type of therapy for self blame is cognitive restructuring or cognitive-behavioral therapy. Cognitive reprocessing is the process of taking the facts and forming a logical conclusion from them that is less influenced by shame or guilt.

(Branscombe et. al., 2003)

===Multiple re-victimization of rape victims===

The risk of sexual revictimization, according to the CDC, is based on vulnerability factors. One of these is the pre-existence of PTSD] from a previous assault. Being the victim of child sexual abuse doubles the likelihood of adult sexual victimization (Parillo et. al., 2003) (Sarkar, N.; Sarkar, R., 2005). PTSD levels are actually higher in those who have been previously victimized than in survivors of only one assault (Follette et. al., 1996). PTSD could give the victim the appearance of vulnerability in dangerous situations and affect the ability of the victim to defend themselves.


One study found that of the 433 sexually assaulted respondents, two-thirds reported more than one incident (Sorenson et. al., 1991). Two further studies also found that women who were victimized more than once or in both childhood and adolescence had a higher risk for adult revictimization and more PTSD (Siegel & Williams, 2001), (Breslau et. al., 1999). Intervention such as counseling for mental health issues (like PTSD) and for possible addictions related to the abuse can help women with child sexual abuse histories overcome some of the abuse-related sequelae that make them vulnerable to adult revictimization (Parillo et. al., 2003). Other factors influencing recovery are emotional support from friends, relations, social and community supports (Sarkar, N.; Sarkar, R., 2005). Further research needs to be done on male-male, male-female and female-female victimization.


==Some aspects of rape==


===False "men do and women don't" stereotypes===

In Sexually Aggressive Women, 13 contributors examine false but pervasive gender stereotypes that hamper sound rape research, that create false impressions about rape in legal, political and social circles, and that prevent acknowledgement that females oppress, dominate and sexually offend too. One contributor notes that "Ignoring sexually aggressive women ignores that harm they cause to victims, whether male or female, and could even exacerbate victims' distress by implying that their experiences are invalid or trivial." Another contributor quotes [Bell Hooks] who wrote:

"Emphasizing paradigms of domination that call attention to woman's capacity to dominate is one way to deconstruct and challenge the simplistic notion that man is the enemy, woman the victim: the notion that men have always been the oppressors. Such thinking enables us to examine our role as woman in the perpetration and maintenance of systems of domination."
The contributor states that research on female forms of oppression would require "acknowledging the guilt-inducing fact that not only are women oppressed but women also oppress others."


===Double standards===

Professionals and researchers who deal with rape-victims have noted a number of social, political, and legal double standards about rape:

*The rape of a child by their parent (see [incest]) is treated as being much less serious than rape by strangers or adults.

*Female rapists are often falsely held to be mentally ill and in need of treatment, while male rapists are typically considered sane and fully culpable by default.

*The rape of a male by an attractive aggressor is commonly regarded as a popular male fantasy (particularly among adolescents). As a result, criminal penalties are often less severe when the male victim is held to be sexually-oriented to the accused. This is especially true in cases involving aquaintances and minors (where aggressors often defend their actions as earnest expressions of "love"). (see [Mary Kay Letourneau])

*Accused rapists are typically identified in the press immediately, while their accuser is granted anonymity (rape shield law) (see [Kobe Bryant] who later apologized to the alleged victim). Criticized as being unconstitutional, the absence of equal anonymity for accuser and defendant is seen as encouraging the trying of the accused in the court of public opinion. In highly publicized cases, critics argue that this policy may even ensure that a fair trial cannot possibly take place. Critics level that the imbalance allows for unrestricted false rape allegations (damaging even after being found to be untrue) by consensual sexual partners seeking vengeance for extra-legal wrong-doing.


===Custodial and prison rape===

{{main|Custodial rape}}


Research carried out by Cindy Struckman-Johnson and David Struckman-Johnson of the [University of South Dakota] has found that 22% - 25% of male prisoners in the United States had been the victim of sexual assault, 10% of rape, and 6% of gang rape. The [Human Rights Watch] report No Escape [http://www.hrw.org/reports/2001/prison/report.html] reports that [prison rape] is routine in US prisons. Women prisoners are especially vulnerable to assault by guards and other staff members, and the incidence in the United States has been denounced by [Amnesty International] and Human Rights Watch. Prisoners are also vulnerable to rape from other prisoners.


===Rape and sexual torture===

In circumstances where [torture] is being employed as a means of military or governmental policy, the rape of both female and male [detainee]s is a common element of that [torture]. It is used often as a means to "soften" the detainees for interrogation or to intimidate them into compliance. In societies with strong social [taboo]s on sexuality, sexual torture is commonly used to destroy the credibility and influence of [political dissident]s. Rape under such circumstances often has even more profoundly negative psychological] effects than under circumstances in which sexual assaults usually happen.


Sexual torture also occurs far from government and military settings. The infliction of torment is often consciously intended in violent rapes by both genders.


See also [humiliation], [Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse], [Nanjing Massacre] and [Psychology of torture].


===Sex trafficking===

{{main|Trafficking in human beings}}


'Human trafficking', or 'sex trafficking' (as the majority of victims are women or children forced into [prostitution]) is a term used to define the recruiting, harboring, obtaining, transportation of a person by use of force, [fraud], or [coercion] for the purpose of subjecting them to involuntary acts, the most common being forced commercial sexual exploitation (forced prostitution).


Human trafficking is not the same as people smuggling. A smuggler will facilitate illegal entry into a country for a fee, but on arrival at their destination, the smuggled person is free; the trafficking victim is enslaved. Victims do not agree to be trafficked — they are tricked, lured by false promises, or forced. Traffickers use coercive tactics including deception, fraud, intimidation, isolation, threat and use of physical force, debt bondage or even force-feeding with drugs of abuse to control their victims. Women are typically recruited with promises of good jobs in other countries or provinces, and, lacking better options at home, agree to migrate, not knowing they will be forced into prostitution.


Due to the illegal nature of trafficking, the exact extent is unknown. A US Government report published in 2003, estimates that 800,000–900,000 people worldwide are trafficked across borders each year.



There is considerable debate as to what constitutes proper and complete consent] in a sexual relationship. How explicit should consent be, how often should it be established, and what constitutes [diminished capacity] (usually due to drugs or alcohol) are all subjects of some disagreement. These debates take place both on moral] and ethical] grounds, and as a legal issue, since rape can only be convicted as a crime with intent in many jurisdictions, and the erroneous belief of consent is a common defense.


===Sexual fantasy===

Psychologists have determined that rape fantasies] are relatively common across populations. Many people assume that people aroused by rape fantasies must be more likely than others to commit the actual act, or that women with rape fantasies actually want to become victims of violent sexual assault. This does not correspond with observed scientific evidence, however; while rapists usually fantasize about rape, so do normal, psychologically-healthy people. [Criminal psychologists] would be more concerned about a person's tendencies if that person was incapable of achieving sexual gratification through fantasy.


==Causes of rape==

(Moving this to it's own page [causes of rape])

According to rape researchers, the prevention of rape is likely to be successful to the extent that the causes are known. They also note that few topics generate as much heated speculation with so little empirical knowledge than research on the causes of rape. However, empirical research is beginning to replace political rhetoric with peer-reviewed science. As of 2006, there is no scientific theory that explains all forms of male-female rape, much less the other types of rape studied in this article. Given the many complex forms and modalities of rape, more than one empirical theory may be needed to explain all the causes of rape. In addition, there are pervasive double standards and widespread social and political biases against even doing research into male-male, female-male, and female-female rape in US university settings (Anderson et al 1998). Finally, there are significant socio-political prohibitions that interfere with research of the perpetrators themselves (Prior, 1996). The presence of all these prejudices, omissions and obstacles vis a vis objective scientific investigation tends to make recent rape research quite questionable at best and absurd at worst.


However a number of correlations have been found between rape and other contributing factors that, while not in and of themselves direct causes of rape, might point to possible causes. According to the CDC there are certain vulnerability factors seen in high risk-victim groups. Rape victim vulnerabilities include prior sexual abuse as a minor, being female, being under the age of 18, being Native American and alcohol or drug use. Being the victim of child sexual abuse doubles the likelihood of adult sexual victimization (Parillo et. al., 2003), (Sarkar, N.; Sarkar, R. 2005). There are also certain characteristics common to high-risk (male) perpetrators of child sex abuse such as themselves being victims of child sexual abuse, the repeated violation of their interpersonal boundaries as children, and unresolved crises in adulthood (Pryor, 1996). One study of (male) serial rapists] found that over 60 percent of them had themselves been sexually abused by adult females before the age of 10-12(?) (Lamb 1999 (pull in researcher)). These correlations, by themselves, mean nothing, but could provide possible paths for further rape research to those researchers searching for universal explanations for the causes of rape.


Researcher Lee Ellis listed three theories about why males rape females and analysed their associated hypotheses against the evidence. In his Theories of Rape, he named the then (1989) known theories for the causes of male-female rape as:


  • The Feminist theory which can be succinctly stated by [Susan Brownmiller]'s famous statement: "rape is nothing more or less than a conscious process of intimidation by which all men keep all women in a state of fear (emphasis in original)". The feminist theory of rape asserts that what [feminist]s see as male domination of female socio-political and economic domains is the ultimate cause of (male-female) rape. Feminist theory considers (male-female) rape a crime of power that has little or nothing to do with sex itself. Feminist theory has little or nothing to say about male-male, female-male and female-female forms of rape. In addition, Ellis notes that "support for the feminist theory of rape and support for the so-called feminist movement", while possibly related, should not be equated as there is a difference between "the merits of a scientific theory" and "support for a social movement".
  • The Social Learning theory is so similar to the feminist theory that they have "at times been virtually equated" according to Ellis. However, unlike feminist theory which focuses on female socio-political exploitation as the core cause of (male-female) rape, the Social Learning theory sees cultural traditions such as imitation (or modeling), sex-violence linkages, rape myths (eg. "Women secretly desire to be raped"), and desensitization effects (caused, for example, by repeated exposure to mass media rape scenes) as the core causes of rape. Ellis states that "Overall, the social learning theory may be best considered a rather complex blend of Bandura's influental theory of instrumental aggression and the feminist theory of rape". Here again, the focus is on male-female rape with no explanations offered for male-male or female-perpetrated forms of rape.
  • The Evolutionary theory sees (male) propensity to rape (females) as being based on natural selection as an evolved reponse to better transmit the male (rapists') genes to future generations. For example, Ellis states that the "world record for the number of offspring fathered by a human male is 888, whereas 69 offspring is the most ever borne by a one human female." These sex disparities mean that those males who can inseminate the largest number of females by "whatever methods necessary (including force)" might win in the contest to pass down their genes. However, once again this theory fails to explain male-male, female-male and female-female rape. In fact, the occurrence of male-male and female-female rape, where genes cannot be passed down at all, would seem to contradict the evolutionary theory of rape.


Each of the above theories presumes there is just one reason for rape, or at most a few. Those who profile rapists say there are many types of rapists and many motivations.


The "power-assertive" rapist rapes because he is prone to physical aggression and wants to be able to dominate his partner during sex like an alpha-male. The "power-reassurance" rapist rapes because he is socially-deficient and unable to develop romantic or even interpersonal relationships with females. This "gentleman rapist" often attempts to treat his victim like a partner in a relationship. The "anger-retaliatory" rapist rapes because he hates women, has a problem with impulse control and a problem with anger management. His judgment is often clouded by substance abuse.


Some rapists rape because they have an emotional need to feel and act powerful during sex. Some rapists rape because they crave sadistic sex. Some rapists rape because they are pedophiles, and can't legally have relations with those they physically desire. Some rapists rape because they are flooded with hormones, and are overwhelmed with sexual desire. These rapists are typically teenagers who engage in acquaintance rape or date rape. Some rapists rape because they have few morals and little respect for the law, and they find a "crime of opportunity," meaning a victim in a situation where chances of getting caught are slim, and/or the consequences slight. Some rapists rape because they feel angry toward all women for the way one woman treated them. Some rapists rape because they themselves were raped. Some rapists rape because they feel sexually inadequate.


The desire for a certain kind of sex can in some individuals can rise to the level of a compulsion. Just like some people can't stop washing their hands, some people can't stop themselves from some type of sexual activity, even if that activity is illegal, hurts others, and is self-destructive. For example, society recognizes that some pedophiles are incapable of stopping themselves. This is society's rationale for keeping them confined even after they serve their time in prison.


This mathematical equation sounds like tautology: "degree of craving" + "degree of physical aggressiveness" divided by ( "respect for the law" + "moral character" + "impulse control" + "risk of capture" + "severity of punishment" ) = "propensity to rape." This states if someone has a strong craving for rape, is physically aggressive, has little respect for the law, has low moral character, low impulse control, and if the risk of getting capture slight, and the punishment for rape light, this person will likely have a greater propensity to rape. On the other hand if someone has weak desire for sex, they are not physically aggressive, they have considerable respect for the law, have high moral character, have high impulse control, and risk of getting caught are great and the punishment is severe, this person will most likely have a low propensity for rape.


In 2005, a mixed-sex group of Canadian research psychologists published The Causes of Rape, a wide ranging scientific study of male-female rape causality along with research on forced copulation in animals. They did no research on the causes of male-male, female-male, and female-female rape. However, they did note that "Few topics have generated more heated debate in the social science literature." than investigating the propensity of males to rape females. They note that "Not all men are inclined to rape" and ask "What is it about the characteristics of some men, and the interaction of these characterisitics with certain contexts, that increases the likelihood of rape?". They go on to pose three possible groups of (male-female) rape causes with a fourth possible grouping of less common causes as follows:


*The Young Male Syndrome posits that rape is the result of the exposure to intense competition among adolescent males and young men. Rape is sometimes a result of this 'adolescent-limited' antisociality as young men engage in risky activities, antisocial behavior, and high mating effort. They state that "the rape behavior of 'adolescent-limited rapists is expected to be impulsive, instrumental, and exploitive", and one that abates with age. Association with anti-social peers and especially with anti-social peers who are hostile to women is one of the best predictors of (young male) rape (of females) since "competition with peers is the driving force behind young male syndrome.

*Competitive Disadvantage is the idea that rape is a conditioned response to competitive disadvantages such as learning disabilities, low IQ, brain damage, abuse, neglect, or extreme neighborhood conditions. The knowledge of these competitive disadvantages can cause such men to choose "shorter term, more anti-social tactics throughout (a probably short) life. Here, rape is considered a conditioned "consequence" of the awareness (usually early in life) that one will otherwise be unable to have sex with a woman.

*Psychopathy: A small group of men (perhaps much less than 5% of the male population) seem to choose pyschopathology as a 'morph'. Men from this group are the most dangerous of all rapists with lifetime patterns of aggression, dishonesty, extreme selfishness, high mating effort, callousness and interpersonal exploitation. However, they exhibit no brain defects and have histories that are "all consistent with a reproductively viable life strategy."

*Others (such as the competively over-advantaged, the non-antisocial spouse, etc) Some men who might be considered competitively overadvantaged such as world leaders, sports stars and business tycoons also rape women. Otherwise pro-social men also rape their own wives. The authors speculate that some men might switch to "high mating effort" and "short-term mating strategies" when the "perceived costs are low" or when the "reproductive interests of women are devalued".


==Rape and punishment==

===Punishment of assailants===

Most societies consider rape to be a grave offense, and punish it accordingly. Punishment for rape in most countries today is imprisonment, but until the late twentieth century, some states of the U.S.], for instance, could apply the [death penalty] in cases of aggravated rape, ([Louisiana] for example) indicating the severity with which the crime was viewed (the death penalty is still in use in countries with a significant social divide between the freedoms and status afforded to men and women). [Castration] is sometimes a punishment for rape and, controversially, some U.S. jurisdictions allow shorter sentences for sex criminals who agree to voluntary "[chemical castration]."


In the Southern states] of the U.S., the charge of rape was often used to justify [vigilante] groups ("[lynch mob]s") that would seize and kill men accused of rape, without [due process] or trial]. Victims of [lynching] were typically, though not always, [African American]. (One historic exception was the lynching of [Leo Frank], a [Jewish] American.) Members of the lynch mobs were rarely prosecuted or punished for these mob killings.


In some such communities, any sexual interaction between an African-American male and a White (Caucasian]) female was viewed as rape, which resulted in a large number of (presumably) innocent men, being murdered. This resulted from the fact that it was commonly believed that no White female would ever consent to sexual relations with a Black man. Rape of Black women by White men was a practice largely ignored or simply tolerated for many years, and local governments rarely punished such rapists in these cases.


Prison sentences for rape are not uniform. A study made by the [[U.S. Department of Justice]] of prison releases in [1992], involving about 80 percent of the prison population, found that the average sentence for convicted rapists was 9.8 years, while the actual time served was 5.4 years. This follows the typical pattern for violent crimes in the US, where those convicted typically serve no more than half of their sentence

[http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/ascii/psatsfv.txt]. Between [2002] and [2003], more than one in ten convicted rapists in [Australia] served a wholly suspended sentence, and the average total effective sentence for rape was seven years [http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2004/10/15/1097784044926.html?from=storylhs].


===Punishment of victims===

:See also: [Honor killing]

While the practice is condemned as barbaric by many present-day societies, some societies punish the victims of rape as well as the perpetrators. According to such cultures, being raped dishonors the victim and, in many cases, the victim's family. In some cultures rape victims are sometimes killed to restore honor to the family's name.


In the Shakespeare] [drama] [Titus Andronicus], Titus Andronicus kills his raped, maimed daughter in what he believes to be a [mercy killing].


====Rape and cultural views====

Certain cultures, often [patriarchal], have historically promoted a system of [honor], dishonor and shame, which was applied with particular strictness to females. A victim of rape would be considered to have lost her honorable reputation and place in society, a loss of honor which entailed [shame] on the woman's [family] group as well. In early [ancient Rome], [ancient China], and other cultures, a pressure has existed which has led women to commit suicide after becoming victims of rape. The iconic Roman instance is that of [Lucretia]. Likewise, suicide of female rape victims for reasons of shame is also historically documented in Chinese and Japanese culture [http://www.theophoretos.hostmatrix.org/chinesepatriarchy.htm].


=== Rape as punishment ===

Though modern societies claim to recognize the practice as barbaric, rape itself is sometimes used as a form of punishment. The victim of the rape is commonly a female relative of the person targeted for retaliation. In June [2002], a [Pakistan]i woman named [Mukhtaran Bibi] was gang-raped by a vigilante mob after her brother was (falsely) accused of rape himself. The Pakistani government, along with local religious officials, condemned this action and sentenced the rapists to death.


In some [dictator]ships, rape is, or was, used as a method to retaliate against, or to intimidate their political enemies. There are numerous allegations that this took place under the former regime of [Iraq]i dictator, [Saddam Hussein]. In the [Abu Ghraib] prison, US soldiers were using similar sexual intimidation and the threat of rape as a means of psychological torture to frighten their mostly male and Muslim prisoners. After the media exposed this in its coverage of the Abu Gharib Scandal, The US government tried several junior personnel involved.


There is suspicion that some rape incidents in prisons are permitted through timely guard absences (at showers, for instance). Motivations for this range from punishing troublesome prisoners to providing a deterrent] to those considering a [criminal act], particularly among those who have little to lose from [incarceration] (e.g. homeless persons in winter).


==Rape and human rights==

Probably for much of human history, rape, violence, and war have often occurred in connection with one another. In the [twentieth century], the use of rape as a "weapon of war" has been well documented and addressed by [NGO]s as well as the [United Nations], [http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/49/a49r205.htm] and national governments.



=== Male rapist profiles===

Dr. A. Nicholas Groth, author of Men Who Rape: The Psychology of the Offender, described four types of deliberate rapists, based on their motivations and behavior patterns. [Forensic scientist]s, criminologists], and [law enforcement] agencies often use these profiles to analyze rapists, and prevent future rapes.


Since rapes are predominantly perpetrated by men, a male perpetrator is assumed in these profiles:

*'The power-assertive rapist': This is argued to be the most common type of rapist, accounting for about 40 percent of all reported rapes. Wishing to be an [alpha male], he tends to value [machismo] and physical aggression, and often rapes victims that he meets in places like bars, where he may pose as, or be, an authority figure. Power-assertive rapists rarely target specific people for rape and, while not intending to kill their victims, often traumatize and humiliate them.

*'The power-reassurance rapist': Responsible for about 27.5% of reported rapes, this type of rapist has been described by law enforcers as the "gentleman rapist". He is usually:

    • of average intelligence;
    • not physically aggressive;
    • socially-deficient; and
    • unable to develop interpersonal or [romantic relationship]s.

:Usually, he will select and stalk] a victim before committing the crime. The victim is usually someone whom he knows, eg. a neighbor or work acquaintance. Power-reassurance rapists often force the victim to emulate [foreplay], and take "trophies" of the rape; they may even record the event in a personal [journal]. Power-reassurance rapists tend to be the least violent type of rapists, often fantasizing] about consensual sexual relationships with women, rather than violent conquests.

*'Anger-retaliatory rapist': Responsible for about 28% of rapes, this type of rapist is often a substance abuser], with impulsive [behavior] and [anger]-related pathologies]. He does not target specific victims, and often feels a general animosity toward the gender of his target. The anger-retaliatory rapist's attacks are usually spontaneous and brutal, and while he does not intend to kill the victim, he may beat her or him to death if she or he resists. This rapist usually has below-average intelligence, and is likely to leave more evidence than other types of rapists.

*'The anger-excitation rapist': This type of rapist, considered the most dangerous and elusive, accounts for about 4.5 percent of rapes. The anger-excitation rapist may or may not choose his victims selectively. Often [sadistic], this type of rapist frequently [murder]s his victim to prevent her or him from identifying him, or for his own self-gratification. FBI profilists lists the fourth type as "sexually sadistic rapists." These rapists are sexual sadists. Only a small percentage of sexual sadists are rapists.


According to John Douglas, the legendary FBI profilist,

rapists tend to fall into four basic categories: "power-reassurance rapist" (driven by feelings of inadequacy), the "exploitive" rapist (impulsive driven and overtly

macho), the "anger" rapist (who uses sex to displace his rage), and the "sadistic" rapist, who gets aroused from sexual sadism.


===Female rapist and abuser profiles===

Court TV's Crime Library lists 6 types of female-male sex offenders based on research by psychiatrist Janet Warren and psychologist Julia Hislop.

  • Facilitators - women who intentionally aid men in gaining access to children for sexual purposes.
  • Reluctant partners - women in long term relationships who go along with the sexual exploitation of a minor out of fear of being abandoned.
  • Initiating partners - women who want to sexually offend against a child and who may do it themselves or get a man or another woman to do it while they watch.
  • Seducers and lovers - women who direct their sexual interest against adolescents and develop an intense attachment.
  • Pedophiles - women who desire an exclusive and sustained sexual relationship with a child.
  • Psychotics - women who suffer from a mental illness and who have inappropriate sexual contact with children as a result.


===Warning signs for potential male rapists===

It is very difficult to predict who may or may not be a potential rapist because rapists have many [personality type]s, and use many different methods. However, certain behavioral characteristics have been observed in some rapists. These should be used cautiously as "warning signs", since non-rapists and other innocent people may also exhibit similar behaviours:

  • Extreme emotional insensitivity and [egotism];
  • Habitual degradation and verbal devaluation of others;
  • Tries to tell others what they are feeling and thinking, as though it is his or her decision and not theirs. "S/he said no, but s/he meant yes";
  • Consistently using [intimidation] in language, or threatening behavior to get his way. Uses words like "bitch" and "[whore]" to describe women;
  • Excessive, chronic, or brooding anger;
  • Becoming obsessed with the object of his or her romantic affections, long after his or her advances have been rejected;
  • Extreme [mood swing]s;
  • Violent outbursts; lack of [impulse control];
  • Aggressive and violent;
  • Cruel behavior, especially under the influence of alcohol] or drugs.


Scientific research does not support the assumption that rape fantasies are warning signs of a potential rapist. While rapists were almost invariably found to have rape fantasies, they were a very small minority compared to a far larger number of psychologically healthy and normal men who had rape fantasies but did not commit rape. {{fact}}


===Warning signs for potential female rapists===

According to Network LaRed woman on woman rape and domestic violence abusers exhibit certain behavior, including:

  • Violent, negative verbal outbursts, throws objects, violates other's privacy, steals and/or breaks objects.
  • Separating themselves from family in order to avoid jealous behavior.
  • Exhibiting behavior that is overly co-dependent in terms of money, and desires a close friend/relative to be dependent of them (or vice versa).
  • Not allowing a close friend/relative access to medications or health care.
  • Claiming alcohol or drug abuse as an excuse for violent behavior.
  • Uses guilt to force others into decisions.
  • Humiliates others intentionally.
  • Blatant disrespect of personal boundaries.
  • Controlling, manipulative behavior.


This behaviour includes, but is not limited to, mothers or care givers who abuse their children.




According to the [1999] [United States] [National Crime Victimization Survey], only 39% of rapes and sexual assaults were reported to law enforcement officials. For male rape, less than 10% are believed to be reported. The most common reasons given by victims for not reporting rapes are the belief that it is a personal or private matter, and that they fear [reprisal] from the assailant. Fisher found that:

: "... many women do not characterize their sexual victimizations as a crime for a number of reasons (such as embarrassment, not clearly understanding the legal definition of rape, or not wanting to define someone they know who victimized them as a 'rapist') or because they blame themselves for their sexual assault."


Rape-related [advocacy group]s have suggested several tactic]s to encourage the reporting of sexual assaults, most of which aim at lessening the psychological trauma, often suffered by rape victims following their assault. Many police departments now assign female police officers to deal with rape cases. Advocacy groups also argue for the preservation of the victim's privacy during the [legal process]; it is standard practice among mainstream American [news media] not to divulge the names of alleged rape victims in news reports.


Psychologists who research female-male, and female-female rape suggest that significant under-reporting of these crimes is occurring. They suggest that the double standards in perception that exist between male and female rape, the taboo nature (see [incest]) of some female rapes, and the lack of rapist-gender reporting in many jurisdictions contribute to this alleged under reporting in the United States. Canadian researcher, Linda Halliday-Sumner suggests from the slowing emerging information about female sex crimes, that women commit about one third (or about 33%) of all sexual offenses. However, she notes that in Canada, just 19 of 4545 (or just 0.4%) of federal prisoners convicted of sex offenses were women in 1997.


===Overreporting and false reporting===

A [1997] article in the [Columbia Journalism Review] dealing with the debate surrounding false reporting, noted that wildly different figures, from 2% to 85% of all rape reports, have been presented:

:"... one explanation for such a wide range in the [statistics] might simply be that they come from different studies of different populations... But there's also a strong political tilt to the debate. A low number would undercut a belief about rape as being as old as the story of Joseph and [Potiphar]'s wife: that some women, out of shame or vengeance ... claim that their consensual encounters or rebuffed advances were rapes. If the number is high, on the other hand, [advocate]s for women who have been raped worry it may also taint the credibility of the genuine victims of sexual assault." [http://archives.cjr.org/year/97/6/rape.asp]


In her work, "The Legacy of the Prompt Complaint Requirement, Corroboration Requirement, and Cautionary Instructions on Campus Sexual Assault", Michelle J. Anderson of the [Villanova University] School of Law states: "As a scientific matter, the frequency of false rape complaints to police or other legal authorities remains unknown" [http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=555884]. The [FBI]'s [1996] Uniform Crime Report] states that 8% of reports of forcible rape were determined to be unfounded upon investigation [http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/Cius_97/96CRIME/96crime2.pdf], but that percentage does not include cases where an accuser fails or refuses to cooperate in an investigation, or drops the charges.


In [1994], Dr. Eugene J. Kanin of [Purdue University] investigated the incidences, in one small urban] community, of false rape allegations made to the police between [1978] and [1987]. The falseness of the allegations was not decided by the police, or by Dr. Kanin; they were "... declared false only because the complainant admitted they are false." The number of false rape allegations in the studied period was 45; this was 41% of the 109 total complaints filed in this period. In Dr. Kanin's research, the complainants who made false allegations did so (by their own statements during recantation) for three major reasons:

*providing an [alibi];

  • a means of gaining revenge; and/or
  • a platform for seeking attention/sympathy.

This is not taking into consideration the methodology of the study or how the admissions were extracted.


{{seealso|Gary Dotson}}


==Sociobiological analysis of rape==

{{main|Sociobiological theories of rape}}


Some animals appear to exhibit behaviors which resemble rape in humans, in particular combining sexual intercourse with violent assault, such as are observed in [duck]s, [geese], and certain species of [dolphin]s. It is difficult to determine to what extent the idea of rape can be extended to intercourse in animal species, as the defining attribute of rape in humans is the lack of [informed consent], which is difficult to determine in animals. (Also see: [Non-human animal sexuality])


Some sociobiologists] argue that our ability to understand rape, and thereby prevent and treat it, is severely compromised because its basis in human [evolution] has been ignored. They argue that rape, as a reproductive] strategy, is encountered in many instances in the [animal kingdom], including among the [great apes], and presumably also among early humans. Some studies indicate that it is an evolutionary strategy for certain males who lack the ability to persuade the female by non-violent means to pass on their genes. (Thornhill & Thornhill, [1983]). Such sociobiological theories, regarding rape as adaptive], are highly controversial, and are not accepted by all mainstream scientists.


[Camille Paglia] and some sociobiologists] have argued that victim-blaming should not be totally dismissed in all cases, since some sociological] models suggest that it may be genetically]-inbuilt for a certain proportion of men and women to act in ways which would tend to raise the chances of rape occurring, and that this may be a biological feature of the species. This, however, is a very controversial view. A contrasting view, given by [Lewis Thomas] in his "The Lives of a Cell: Notes of a [biology] watcher", claims that rape is not only not an evolutionary benefit to the rapist, but that it is strongly maladaptive, and therefore selected against. Others dismiss Lewis Thomas' conclusion, by pointing out that what is maladaptive in one place and time, may be adaptive in another place and time. For example, in certain animal groups females only voluntarily mate with alpha males. In such an environment, non-alpha males are able to pass on their genes by involuntarily impregnating females. Clearly, in animals with this behavior, the genes of non-alpha males who don't participate in this strategy are lost forever, while the genes of non-alpha males who do participate in this strategy are passed on.


==The role of control and loss of privacy in rape==

Rape has been regarded as "a crime of violence and control" since the [1970s]. According to psychological analysis literature, "control" is a key feature in most definitions of [privacy]:

  • "Privacy is not the absence of other people from one's presence, but the control over the contact one has with them." (Pedersen, D. 1997).
  • "Selective control of access to the self." (Margulis, 2003)


Control is important in providing:

  • what we need for normal psychological functioning;
  • stable interpersonal relationships; and
  • personal development. (Pedersen, D. 1997)

Violation of privacy or "control", come in many forms, sexual assault, and the resulting psychological traumas, being one of the most explicit forms. Many sexual assault survivors suffer from eating disorders, such as [anorexia nervosa] and [bulimia], which also center around control issues. In some ways, therefore, it makes more sense to look at the issue of sexual assault as an invasion of privacy:


: "The more comfortable a person is with talking about invasion of privacy and in insisting that he or she has privacy that deserves respect, the clearer that person’s understanding of rape will be…" (Mclean, D. 1995)


Consequently, it is important to be aware of the approach of this subject of rape through the concept of privacy because of the historical background and the need to bypass certain stigma]s.



The [Supreme Court of California] had this to say on a case involving a woman who was raped by a police officer:


: "Along with other forms of sexual assault, it belongs to that class of indignities against the person that cannot ever be fully righted, and that diminishes all [humanity]."

:: Mary M. v. City of Los Angeles 54 Cal.3d 202,222 (1991) [285 Cal.Rptr. 99; 814 P.2d 1341]


One [Supreme Court of the United States] opinion included:


: "We do not discount the seriousness of rape as a crime. It is highly reprehensible, both in a moral sense and in its almost total [contempt] for the personal integrity and autonomy] of the female victim and for the latter's privilege of choosing those with whom intimate relationships are to be established. Short of [homicide], it is the "ultimate violation of self." It is also a violent crime because it normally involves force, or the threat of force or intimidation, to overcome the will and the capacity of the victim to resist. Rape is very often accompanied by physical injury to the female and can also inflict mental and psychological damage. Because it undermines the community's sense of security, there is public injury as well."

:: Coker v. Georgia 433 U.S. 584 at 597-598 (1977) [53 L.Ed.2d 982, 97 S.Ct. 2861] (plur. opn. of White, J.; conc. and dis. opn. of Powell, J.)


Researcher Metzger wrote:


: "Rape is loss. Like death, it is best treated with a period of mourning and grief. We should develop social ceremonies for rape, [ritual]s, that, like [funeral]s and [wake]s, would allow the mourners to recover the spirits that the rapist, like death, steals. The social community is the appropriate center for the restoration of spirit, but the rape victim is usually shamed into silence or self-imposed isolation." (Metzger, D. (1976). "It is always the woman who is raped." American Journal of Psychiatry, 133 (4), 405-408)




==See also==


==Further reading==

===Academic and reference books===

'Reference books'

  • Smith, M. D. (2004). Encyclopedia of Rape. USA: Greenwood Press.
  • Macdonals, John (1993). World Book Encyclopedia. United States of America: World Book Inc.
  • Kahn, Ada. (1992). The A-Z of women's sexuality : a concise encyclopedia. Alameda, Calif.: Hunter House.
  • The Columbia encyclopedia. Sixth edition, 2001-04.
  • Leonard, Arthur S. (1993). Sexuality and the law : an encyclopedia of major legal cases. New York : Garland Pub
  • Kazdin, Alan E. (2000). Encyclopedia of psychology. Washington, D.C. : American Psychological Association ; Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press
  • Sedney, Mary Anne, "rape (crime)." Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Scholastic Library Publishing, 2006 <http://gme.grolier.com>
  • Kittleson, M., Harper, J., & Hilgenkamp, K. (2005). The Truth About Rape. USA: Facts on File


'Secondary victimization and victim blame'

  • Lamb, Sharon, The Trouble with Blame: Victims, Perpetrators and Responsibility, Harvard Univ Press, 1999.
  • Madigan, L. and Gamble, N. (1991). The Second Rape: Society's Continued Betrayal of the Victim. New York: Lexington Books.
  • Murray JD, Spadafore JA, McIntosh WD. (2005) Belief in a just world and social perception: evidence for automatic activation. J Soc Psychol. Feb;145(1):35-47.
  • Frese, B., Moya, M., & Megius, J. L. (2004). Social Perception of Rape: How Rape Myth Acceptance Modulates the Influence of Situational Factors. Journal-of-Interpersonal-Violence, 19(2), 143-161.
  • Pauwels, B. (2002). Blaming the victim of rape: The culpable control model perspective. Dissertation-Abstracts-International:-Section-B:-The-Sciences-and-Engineering, 63(5-B)
  • Blumberg, M. & Lester, D. (1991). High school and college students' attitudes toward rape. Adolescence, 26(103), 727-729.
  • Shaver, . (2002). Attribution of rape blame as a function of victim gender and sexuality, and perceived similarity to the victim. Journal of Homosexuality, 43(2)
  • Anderson , K. J. & Accomando, C. (1999). Madcap Misogyny and Romanticized Victim-Blaming: Discourses of Stalking in There's Something About Mary. Women & Language, 1, 24-28.
  • The effect of participant sex, victim dress, and traditional attitudes on causal judgments for marital rape victims. (Author Abstract). Mark A. Whatley. Journal of Family Violence 20.3 (June 2005): p191(10).
  • Kay, Aaron C., Jost, John T. & Young, Sean (2005) Victim Derogation and Victim Enhancement as Alternate Routes to System Justification. Psychological Science 16 (3), 240-246.


'Self blame'

  • Tangney, June Price and Dearing, Ronda L., Shame and Guilt, The Guilford Press, 2002
  • Matsushita-Arao, Yoshiko. (1997). Self-blame and depression among forcible rape survivors. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. 57(9-B). pp. 5925.
  • Branscombe, Nyla R.; Wohl, Michael J. A.; Owen, Susan; Allison, Julie A.; N'gbala, Ahogni. (2003). Counterfactual Thinking, Blame Assignment, and Well-Being in Rape Victims. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 25 (4). p265, 9p.
  • Frazier, Patricia A.; Mortensen, Heather; Steward, Jason. (2005). Coping Strategies as Mediators of the Relations Among Perceived Control and Distress in Sexual Assault Survivors. Journal of Counseling Psychology, Jul2005, Vol. 52 Issue 3, p267-278


'Causes of multiple victimization'

  • Follette et. al., (1996). Cumulative trauma: the impact of child sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, and spouse abuse. J Trauma Stress.9(1):25-35.
  • Sarkar, N. N.; Sarkar, Rina, (2005). Sexual Assault on a Woman: Its Impact on Her Life and Living in Society. Sexual & Relationship Therapy. 20 (4), 407-419
  • Parillo, K., Robert C. Freeman, & Paul Young. (2003) Association Between Child Sexual Abuse and Sexual Revictimization in Adulthood Among Women Sex Partners of Injection Drug Users. Violence and Victims. 18(4): 473-484.
  • Shields, N. & Hanneke, C. (1988). Multiple Sexual Victimization: The Case of Incest and Marital Rape. In G. Hotaling, D. Finkelhor, J. Kirkpatrick, & M. Strauss (Eds), Family abuse and its consequences: New directions in research. (pp. 255-269). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  • Sorenson SB, Siegel JM, Golding JM, Stein JA. (1991). Repeated sexual victimization.

Violence Vict. Winter;6(4):299-308.


'Male survivors'

  • Dorais, Michel, Don't Tell: The Sexual Abuse of Boys, McGill-Queen Univ Press, 2002.
  • Mezey, Gillian, and King, Michael, Male Victims of Sexual Assault, Oxford, 2000.



  • Anderson, Peter and Struckman-Johnson Cindy, Sexually Aggressive Women: Current Perspectives and Controversies, Guilford, 1998.
  • Harris, Grant, et al, The Causes of Rape: Understanding Individual Differences in Male Propensity for Sexual Aggression, American Psychological Association, 2005.
  • "Psychosexual Disorders." Section 15, Chapter 192 in The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy , edited by Mark H. Beers, MD, and Robert Berkow, MD. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Research Laboratories, 2002.
  • Brownmiller, Susan]: Against Our Will : Men, Women, and Rape, Ballantine Books, 1975.
  • Gavey, Nicola, Just Sex: The Cultural Scaffolding of Rape, Routledge, 2005.
  • Scruton, Roger, Sexual Desire: A Moral Philoshopy of the Erotic, Free, 1986.
  • Ellis, Lee, Theories of Rape: Inquiries Into the Causes of Rape, Hemisphere, 1989.
  • McDonald, John, Rape: Controversial Issues: Criminal Profiles, Date Rape, False Reports, and False Memories, Charles C Thomas, 1995.
  • Cothran, Helen, Sexual Violence: Opposing Viewpoints, Thompson Gale, 2003.
  • Holmes, Ronald and Steven, Current Perspectives on Sex Crimes, Sage, 2002.
  • Emilie Buchwald, Pamela Fletcher, Martha Roth (ed.), Transforming a Rape Culture, Milkweed Editions, 2005.
  • Kanin, Eugene J. (1994). False Rape Allegations. Archives of Sexual Behavior.

*Sarah Projansky, Watching Rape: Film and Television in Postfeminist Culture, New York University Press 2001

  • Thornhill, Randy and Palmer, Craig T. A Natural History of Rape: Biological Bases of Sexual Coercion. MIT Press, 2001.
  • Roussel, D.E. and R. Bolen. (2000). The Epidemic of Rape and Child Sexual Abuse in the United States. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Mclean, D. (1995). Privacy and its invasion. CT: Praeger.
  • Margulis, Stephen T., (2003). Privacy as a social issue and behavioral concept. Journal of social issues 59(2):243-261
  • Pedersen, DM (1997) Psychological functions of privacy. Journal Of Environmental Psychology, 17:147-156


'Child rape and child sexual assault'

  • Levesque, Roger, Sexual Abuse of Children, Indiana Univ Press, 1999.
  • Pryor, Douglass, W. Unspeakable Acts: Why Men Sexually Abuse Children, New York University Press, 1996.


'Female Sex Offenders'

  • Pearson, Patricia, When She Was Bad: Violent Women and the Myth of Innocence, Viking Adult, 1997.
  • Adams, Ken, Silently Seduced: When Parents Make their Children Partners-Understanding Covert Incest, HCI, 1991.
  • Anderson, Peter B., and Struckman-Johnson Cindy, Sexually Aggressive Women: Current Perspectives and Controversies, Guilford, 1998.
  • Kierski, Werner, Female Violence: Can We Therapists Face Up to it?, Counseling and Psychotherapy Journal, 12/2002.
  • Rosencrans, Bobbie, The Last Secret: Daughters Sexually Abused by Mothers, Safer Society, 1997.
  • Miletski, Hani, Mother-Son Incest: The Unthinkable Broken Taboo, Safer Society, 1999.
  • Elliot, Michelle, Female Sexual Abuse of Children, Guilford, 1994
  • Hislop, Julia, Female Sex Offenders: What Therapists, Law Enforcement and Child Protective Services Need to Know, Issues Press, 2001.


'Non-human rape'

  • Gowaty, P.A. and N. Buschhaus. (1997). Functions of aggressive and forced copulations in birds: female resistance and the CODE hypothesis. American Zoologist (in press)



  • McElroy, Wendy, Sexual Correctness: The Gender-Feminist Attack on Women, McFarland, 2001.
  • Gavin de Becker. The Gift of Fear. ISBN 0440226198, (recognising and handling dangerous people and situations)
  • Doe, Jane. The Real Story of Jane Doe. Toronto: Random House, 2003.
  • Ghiglieri, Michael P. (1999). The Dark Side of Man: Tracing the Origins of Violence. USA: Perseus Books.
  • [Alice Sebold] Lucky: A Memoir (2002) ISBN 0316096199 (author recounts her own rape at the age of 18)


== External links ==

===Research resources on sexual assault and rape ===



Statistics on sexual violence and reporting



Definitions of rape and sexual assault


Message boards for rape survivors


Marital/Intimate partner rape links

*For better or worse: the case of marital rape


Non-stereotypical sexual assault


Female-female rape links


Male-male and female-male rape links


LGBTQ (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer)

*LGBTQ and lesbian sexual assault resources


Victim blame


Self blame


Politics of rape


Sexual assault awareness raising for victim's rights



Emerging and controversial research topics


Drugs and alcohol in rape

*NIDA InfoFacts: Rohypnol and GHB - NIDA website.


*Findlaw - intoxication and the legal definition of rape.

*Beyond 'drink spiking': drug and alcohol facilitated sexual assault, November 2003, Briefing from the [Australian Institute of Family Studies]


*Drink-spike victims had one too many Australian study finding the vast majority of "drink spike" victims were actually only heavily intoxicated or under the influence of drugs taken voluntarily (not GHB).





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